Friday, November 6, 2015

Cushing's Articles

Since I was a medical librarian in a former career, and since we patients have to know more than our local endocrinologists, I thought I'd give some light reading to you night owls and potential Cushies.

Cushing's Testing & Diagnosis

Want to know what drugs and foods cause testing to be off?  The first article below is the one you'll want to read.
Pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome
Vivek Bansal, M., Nadine El Asmar, M., Warren R. Selman, M., & Baha M. Arafah, M. (2015, February). Pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome. Neurosurg Focus, 38 (2), E4.  DOI: 10.3171/2014.11.FOCUS14704.

Accuracy of diagnostic tests for Cushing's syndrome: a systematic review and metaanalyses
Elamin, M.B., Murad, M.H., Mullan, R. et al. (2008) Accuracy of diagnostic tests for Cushing's syndrome: a systematic review and metaanalyses. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93, 1553–1562.  DOI: 10.1210/jc.2008-0139

Diagnostic Tests for mild Cushings Syndrome
Zachery, L., & Friedman, T. C. (Summer 2009). Diagnostic Tests for Mild Cushings Syndrome. Ethnicity & Disease, 19, S3 54-55.

Diagnosis/differential diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome: a review of best practice
Newell‐Price, J. (2009). Diagnosis/differential diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome: a review of best practice. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab, 23(S1), S5‐14.

Diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline **Official Diagnostic Guidelines**
Nieman, L. K., Biller, B. M., Findling, J. W., Newell-Price, J., Savage, M. O., Stewart, P. M., et al. (2008). The Diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1526-1540.  DOI: 10.1210/jc.2008-0125

Dynamic Pituitary MRI has High Sensitivity and Specificity for the Diagnosis of Mild Cushing's Syndrome and should be Part of the Initial Workup (abstract only)
Friedman TC, Zuckerbraun E, Lee ML, Kabil MS, Shahinian H. Dynamic pituitary MRI has high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of mild Cushing's syndrome and should be part of the initial workup. Horm Metab Res. 2007 Jun; 39(6):451-6.  DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-980192

High prevalence of normal tests assessing hypercortisolism in subjects with mild and episodic Cushing's syndrome suggests that the paradigm for diagnosis and exclusion of Cushing's syndrome requires multiple testing (abstract only)
Friedman TC, Ghods DE, Shahinian HK, Zachery L, Shayesteh N, Seasholtz S, Zuckerbraun E, Lee ML, McCutcheon IE. High prevalence of normal tests assessing hypercortisolism in subjects with mild and episodic Cushing's syndrome suggests that the paradigm for diagnosis and exclusion of Cushing's syndrome requires multiple testing. Horm Metab Res. 2010 Nov; 42(12):874-81.  DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1263128

Late-night salivary cortisol for diagnosis of overt and subclinical Cushing's syndrome in hospitalized and ambulatory patients
Nunes, M., Vattaut, S., Corcuff, J. et al. (2009) Late-night salivary cortisol for diagnosis of overt and subclinical Cushing's syndrome in hospitalized and ambulatory patients. Journal of Clinical Endocrinologyand Metabolism, 94, 456–462.  DOI: 10.1210/jc.2008-1542

The Low-Dose Dexamethasone Suppression Test: A Reevaluation in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome
Findling, J. W., Raff, H., & Aron, D. C. (2003, July 02). The Low-Dose Dexamethasone Suppression Test: A Reevaluation in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome. The Journal of Endocrinology & Metabolism. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2003-030207

Overnight urinary free cortisol determination: A screening test for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (abstract only)
Corcuff , J., Tabarin , A., Rashedi , M., & et al. (1998). Overnight urinary free cortisol determination: A screening test for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Clinical Endocrinology, 48, 503-508. 

An Update on the Overnight Dexamethasone Suppression Test for the Diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome: Limitations in Patients with Mild and/or Episodic Hypercortisolism  (abstract only)
Corcuff , J., Tabarin , A., Rashedi , M., & et al. (1998). An Update on the Overnight Dexamethasone Suppression Test for the Diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome: Limitations in Patients with Mild and/or Episodic Hypercortisolism Clinical Endocrinology, 48, 503-508. DOI: 10.1055/s-2006-924281

Utility of salivary cortisol measurements in Cushing's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency
Raff, H. (2009) Utility of salivary cortisol measurements in Cushing's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency.  Journal of Clinical Endocrinologyand Metabolism, 94, 3647–3655. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2009-1166

Cyclical Cushing's

Cyclical Cushing's syndrome: an update (abstract only)
Mullan, K.R., Atkinson, A.B. & Sheridan, B. (2007) Cyclical Cushing's syndrome: an update. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, 14, 317–322.

Cyclical Cushing’s Syndrome
A. Brew Atkinson, M. (2009, Apr 22). Cyclical Cushing’s Syndrome. Retrieved Nov 06, 2015, from Cushing's Support and Research Foundation | Doctor's Articles: http://csrf.net/doctors-articles/cyclical-and-subclinical-cushings/cyclical-cushings-syndrome/

Cyclic Cushing’s syndrome: a clinical challenge
Meinardi, J. R., Wolffenbuttel, B. H., & Dullaart, R. P. (2007). Cyclic Cushing’s syndrome: a clinical challenge. European Journal of Endocrinology, 157, 245-254.
Quote from article:
"Depressed patients frequently demonstrate insufficient suppression of urinary and serum cortisol in response to the 2 mg dexamethasone test"


Cyclic Cushing's syndrome: an overview
Albiger, N. M., Scaroni, C. M., & Mantero, F. (2007, November). Cyclic Cushing's syndrome: an overview. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia, 51(8), DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27302007000800011.

What is the Best Approach to Suspected Cyclical Cushing Syndrome?: Strategies for Managing Cushing’s Syndrome With Variable Laboratory Data
Atkinson, B., & Mullan, K. R. (2011). What is the Best Approach to Suspected Cyclical Cushing Syndrome?: Strategies for Managing Cushing’s Syndrome With Variable Laboratory Data. Clin Endocrinol, 75(1), 27-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.04033.x

Things that affect Cortisol Production

Adrenocortical activity and urinary cyclic AMP levels: effects of hypobaric hypoxia. (abstract only) 
Hypobaric hypoxia = oxygen deprivation (in this case - from high altitudes)
Francesconi, R., & Cymerman, A. (1975, Jan). Adrenocortical activity and urinary cyclic AMP levels: effects of hypobaric hypoxia. Aviat Space Environ Med. , 46(1), 50-4.

Effect of 14 days of bed rest on urine metabolite excretion and plasma enzyme levels.
Pace, N., Grunbaum, B., Kodama, A., Rahlmann, D., & Newsom, B. (1975). Effect of 14 days of bed rest on urine metabolite excretion and plasma enzyme levels. Life Sci Space Res., 13, 41-7.

Effect of subanaesthetic ketamine on plasma and saliva cortisol secretion (aka Are ketamine injections bad for Cushies?) (abstract only)
Khalili-Mahani , N., Martini , C., Olofsen , E., Dahan, A., & Niesters , M. (2015, Jul). Effect of subanaesthetic ketamine on plasma and saliva cortisol secretion. Br J Anaesth, 115(1), 68-75. doi: 10.1093/bja/aev135. Epub 2015 May 16.

Comorbidities and Other Articles

Acne in hirsute women
Lumezi, B., Pupovci, H., Berisha, V., Goçi, A., & Gerqari, A. (2014). Acne in hirsute women. Postepy Dermatologii i Alergologii, 31(6), 356-361. DOI: 10.5114/pdia.2014.47118

Testosterone and Bioavailable Testosterone Help to Distinguish between Mild Cushing's Syndrome and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Hormone and Metabolic Research 
Pall, M., Lao, M., Patel, S., Lee, M., Ghods, D., Chandler, D., & Friedman, T. (2008). Testosterone and Bioavailable Testosterone Help to Distinguish between Mild Cushing's Syndrome and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Hormone and Metabolic Research, 40 (11), 813-818 DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1087186

Pituitary Hyperplasia 
Oldfield, E. (2014, Summer). Pituitary Hyperplasia (Doctor's answers | Causes of Cushing's, Doctor's Answers, Recurrent Pituitary Cushing's). Retrieved Nov 24, 2015, from Cushing's Support and Research Foundation:

Post Diagnosis and/or Surgical

Long-term remission rates after pituitary surgery for Cushing's disease: the need for long-term surveillance
Atkinson, A.B., Kennedy, A., Wiggam, M.I. et al. (2005) Long-term remission rates after pituitary surgery for Cushing's disease: the need for long-term surveillance. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxf), 63, 549–559.  DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2005.02380.x

Some Oldies for Fun

1993 Unpredictable hypersecretion of cortisol in Cushing's disease (abstract only)
Hermus, A.R., Pieters, G.F., Borm, G.F. et al. (1993) Unpredictable hypersecretion of cortisol in Cushing's disease. Acta Endocrinologica(Coph), 128, 428–432.
Quote from Article
"24 h urine for determination of cortisol excretion was collected daily at home on 725 consecutive days"
- HOLY COW!!!

1992 Cyclical Cushing's syndrome first diagnosed after pituitary surgery: a trap for the unwary
Atkinson, A. B., McCance, O. R., Kennedy, L., & Sheridan, B. (1992, March). Cyclical Cushing's syndrome first diagnosed after pituitary surgery: a trap for the unwary. Clinical Endocrinology, 36(3), 1365-2265.

1985 Cyclical Cushing's disease: two distinct rhythms in a patient with a basophil adenoma
Atkinson, A.B., Chestnutt, A., Crothers, E. et al. (1985a) Cyclical Cushing's disease: two distinct rhythms in a patient with a basophil adenoma. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 60, 328–332. DOI: 10.1210/jcem-60-2-328

1985 Five cases of cyclical Cushing's syndrome.
Atkinson, A.B., Kennedy, A.L., Carson, D.J.  (1985b) Five cases of cyclical Cushing's syndrome. British Medical Journal, 291, 1453–1457.

1973Cushing's disease with periodic hormonogenesis: one explanation for paradoxical response to dexamethasone.
Brown, R.D., Van Loon, G.R., Orth, D.N. et al. (1973) Cushing's disease with periodic hormonogenesis: one explanation for paradoxical response to dexamethasone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinologyand Metabolism, 36, 445–451. DOI: 10.1210/jcem-36-3-445

1971 Periodic hormonogenesis--a new phenomenon. Periodicity in function of a hormone-producing tumor in man.
Bailey, R.E. (1971) Periodic hormonogenesis – a new phenomenon. Periodicity in function of a hormone producing tumour in man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 32, 317–320. DOI: 10.1210/jcem-32-3-317

Dr. Friedman's full Bibliography

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